Cristin-resultat-ID: 1885801
Sist endret: 22. mars 2021 09:43
NVI-rapporteringsår: 2020
Resultat
Vitenskapelig oversiktsartikkel/review
2020

A CITES risk assessment for polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Opinion of the Panel on alien organisms and trade in endangered species (CITES) of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment

Bidragsytere:
  • Eli Knispel Rueness
  • Maria Gulbrandsen Asmyhr
  • Hugo de Boer
  • Katrine Eldegard
  • Lars Robert Hole
  • Kjetil Hindar
  • mfl.

Tidsskrift

VKM Report
ISSN 2535-4019
e-ISSN 2535-4019
NVI-nivå 1

Om resultatet

Vitenskapelig oversiktsartikkel/review
Publiseringsår: 2020
Publisert online: 2020
Volum: 2020
Hefte: 06
Sider: 1 - 85

Klassifisering

Vitenskapsdisipliner

Økologi • Naturressursforvaltning • Zoologiske og botaniske fag

Emneord

CITES konvensjonen • Risikovurdering

Beskrivelse Beskrivelse

Tittel

A CITES risk assessment for polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Opinion of the Panel on alien organisms and trade in endangered species (CITES) of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment

Sammendrag

Key words: Ursus maritimus, CITES, polar bear, Non-Detriment Finding, Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment, Norwegian Environment Agency, VKM Background: Canada is the only nation in the world that allows commercial export of polar bear products harvested from its own wild populations. Norway is among the destinations for exported material. Polar bears are listed on CITES appendix II and on list B of the Norwegian CITES Regulation. Import of harvested polar bears to Norway requires both export permits from the Canadian CITES authorities and import permits from the Norwegian Environment Agency. Consequently, a Non-Detriment Finding (NDF) is mandated and was commissioned by the Norwegian Environment Agency (Norwegian Management Authority for CITES) to the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) (Norway’s CITES Scientific Authority). The NDF is a scientific risk assessment evaluating whether or not international trade can be detrimental to the survival of polar bears. The risk assessment may also be used by the Norwegian Environment Agency to assess whether the polar bears should be placed on Norwegian CITES list A. Currently, the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group (PBSG) recognizes 19 subpopulations of polar bears in the circumpolar Arctic, of which 13 reside wholly (9) or partly (4) in Canada. Together, these 13 populations account for about two thirds of the world’s total polar bear population. This risk assessment considers the populations that are within the hunting areas. Methods: VKM has reviewed current knowledge about polar bear biological characteristics, population status and trends in subpopulations. Scenarios for the future development of the Arctic environment, to which the species is inextricably adapted, are presented. Habitat loss due to declining sea ice is widely recognized as the main threat to polar bears, and this, as well as other obstacles to the species survival, has been evaluated. The various legislations, regulations and monitoring regimes of the range countries are briefly summarised. Moreover, international trade in polar bear products has been analysed. VKM has further undertaken an assessment of data quality and uncertainties. In order to gain access to the most recent information on polar bear biology and management, four scientists from the PBSG were interviewed and the transcripts of the interviews (with consent from the hearing experts) are attached to this report. Results: The best scientific knowledge available for polar bears in Canada suggests that four subpopulations are in decline, two are stable, and one is increasing, while the population trends for the remaining subpopulations are unknown. Noteworthy, all the estimates of population size are highly uncertain. Survey methods also changed between the 2008 and 2018 population estimates used for quota setting. Moreover, data are in most areas collected too infrequently to detect rapid changes in population size. Particularly, under changing environmental conditions. The prognosis for the Arctic marine environment points towards continuing habitat loss and inevitably further decline for the polar bear population. Analyses of data from the CITES trade database reveal a dynamic international market for polar bear products with significant changes in destination countries and the purpose for transactions. The United States was the main importer of polar bear products, mainly hunting trophies, until listing the polar bear as a threatened species in 2008. In more recent years, China has become the major importer, with hides being the preferred product. Simultaneously with these changes, there has been a significant increase in the price of polar bear hides. Conclusion: Several polar bear subpopulations are in decline. Predictions of continuing habitat loss points to further decline. While not the main threat to polar bear survival, international trade .......

Bidragsytere

Aktiv cristin-person

Eli Knispel Rueness

  • Tilknyttet:
    Forfatter
    ved Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø
  • Tilknyttet:
    Forfatter
    ved Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis ved Universitetet i Oslo
Aktiv cristin-person

Maria Gulbrandsen Asmyhr

  • Tilknyttet:
    Forfatter
    ved Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø
Aktiv cristin-person

Hugo de Boer

  • Tilknyttet:
    Forfatter
    ved Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø
  • Tilknyttet:
    Forfatter
    ved Naturhistorisk museum ved Universitetet i Oslo

Katrine Eldegard

  • Tilknyttet:
    Forfatter
    ved Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø
  • Tilknyttet:
    Forfatter
    ved Miljøvitenskap og naturforvaltning ved Norges miljø- og biovitenskapelige universitet

Lars Robert Hole

  • Tilknyttet:
    Forfatter
    ved Meteorologisk institutt
  • Tilknyttet:
    Forfatter
    ved Vitenskapskomiteen for mat og miljø
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