Cristin-resultat-ID: 2004204
Sist endret: 21. februar 2022, 15:36
NVI-rapporteringsår: 2022
Vitenskapelig artikkel

Cascade sub-low temperature district heating networks in existing district heating systems

  • Anna Volkova
  • Stefan Reuter
  • Stefan Puschnigg
  • Hanne Kauko
  • Ralf Roman Schmidt
  • Benedikt Leitner
  • mfl.


Smart Energy
ISSN 2666-9552
e-ISSN 2666-9552
NVI-nivå 1

Om resultatet

Vitenskapelig artikkel
Publiseringsår: 2022
Publisert online: 2022
Volum: 5
Artikkelnummer: 100064
Open Access


Scopus-ID: 2-s2.0-85124308913

Beskrivelse Beskrivelse


Cascade sub-low temperature district heating networks in existing district heating systems


Existing district heating networks (DHNs) are often designed for relatively high temperatures, typically 80–120 °C supply and 40–60 °C return. The transformation of such high-temperature DHNs (HTDHNs) into more efficient low-temperature DHNs (LTDHN) and towards the 4th generation DHNs is associated with great complexity and effort. This paper discusses the integration of sub-LTDHNs into the return flow of existing HTDHNs, thereby creating an energy cascade and thus lowering the overall system temperatures of the HTDHN. The technical barriers and drivers of such sub-LTDHNs were analysed through literature research, expert interviews, and a questionnaire. Their technical design was investigated, and a techno-economic analysis was conducted for several configurations in terms of the supply and return temperatures in the sub-LTDHN, various temperatures of the HTDHN and potential connecting points. This analysis was also conducted for a planned residential area in a Nordic city. In addition, their operating dynamics resulting from different HTDHN load conditions were analysed in terms of the effects on the sub-LTDHN. It was found that, on the one hand, the connection point with its prevailing conditions (mass flow and temperature) is the key parameter to ensure that the heat demand is met. On the other hand, the savings in the HTDHN due to lower return system temperatures resulting from the sub-LTDHN integration in the return pipeline are significantly higher if the use of combustion technologies is minimized. © 2022 The Authors Keywords: 4th generation district heating; Cascading; Decarbonisation; Energy efficiency; Low-temperature district heating; Sub-LTDHN


Anna Volkova

  • Tilknyttet:
    ved Tallinna Tehnikaülikool

Stefan Reuter

  • Tilknyttet:
    ved Austrian Institute of Technology

Stefan Puschnigg

  • Tilknyttet:
    ved Johannes Kepler Universität Linz

Hanne Kauko

  • Tilknyttet:
    ved Termisk energi ved SINTEF Energi AS

Ralf Roman Schmidt

  • Tilknyttet:
    ved Austrian Institute of Technology
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